This figure (interactive on google maps) shows the relevance of a city’s contribution to science (this map is physics) based on links to citations in papers.
Inspecting the maps raises questions on several levels such as how language affects citations and the effects of isolated communities of researchers who cite each other’s work but do not make references outside of their circle.
Something that hit me right off the bat:
Most science is focused in the northern hemisphere… and I would really trust a nuclear reactor designed by a physicist in Russia/the old soviet block. Thoughts?